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|Title:||Bathymorphologic Mapping of Coastal Platform in Siladen Island North Sulawesi|
|Authors:||Kumaat, Joyce Christian|
|Abstract:||Coral reef ecosystems benefit millions of people around the world. Coral reefs buffer coastal communities against ocean storms, provide a ready supply of animal protein, and harbor organisms with pharmaceutical properties. As the "rainforests of the sea", coral reefs provide esthetic pleasure to tourists and support tourism-based economies. Scientists value reefs as a living laboratory. Some people derive satisfaction from simply knowing that coral reefs exist. Human activities threaten coral reefs and diminish the benefits that reefs provide to society . Agriculture and coastal development pollute coastal waters with sediment and nutrients, smothering reefs and spurring growth of macroalgae. Destructive fishing practices, including the use of explosives, poisons, and fine mesh nets, can reduce entire reefs to rubble or leave them virtually devoid of animal life. Over harvesting by fishers and collectors provides short-term benefits at the expense of long-term sustainability. Boat anchors break apart coral colonies and reduce the physical complexity necessary to support the full diversity of reef species. Nonnative organisms, introduced by aquaculture farms or ship-borne ballast, out compete native reef species and may induce ecological cascades that threaten the integrity of entire reef ecosystems. Natural events, from hurricanes to disease outbreaks, can exacerbate the impact of these human activities.|
|Appears in Collections:||Lecturer Scientific Papers|
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